Cleopatra was a legendary queen of ancient Egypt who lived from 69-30 BCE. She was the last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which was established in Egypt after the death of Alexander the Great.
Cleopatra is known for her political savvy, her beauty, and her relationships with two of the most powerful men of the time: Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. She first met Caesar in 48 BCE when he arrived in Alexandria, and the two quickly became allies and lovers. When Caesar returned to Rome, Cleopatra accompanied him and gave birth to their son, Caesarion.
After Caesar’s assassination in 44 BCE, Cleopatra returned to Egypt, where she continued to rule and formed an alliance with Mark Antony, who was one of Caesar’s top generals. Antony fell in love with Cleopatra and had three children with her, but their relationship was ultimately doomed. In 31 BCE, Antony’s forces were defeated by those of Octavian (the future Emperor Augustus) at the Battle of Actium, and both Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide shortly thereafter.
Cleopatra’s life has been the subject of countless books, films, and works of art, and her story continues to capture the imagination of people around the world. However, much of the historical record about her is fragmentary and subject to interpretation, and many myths and legends have grown up around her life and legacy over the centuries.